The parathyroid hormone 1 receptor (PTH1R) mediates the biologic actions of parathyroid hormone (PTH) and parathyroid hormone–related protein (PTHrP). Here, we showed that salt-inducible kinases (SIKs) are key kinases that control the skeletal actions downstream of PTH1R and that this GPCR, when activated, inhibited cellular SIK activity. Sik gene deletion led to phenotypic changes that were remarkably similar to models of increased PTH1R signaling. In growth plate chondrocytes, PTHrP inhibited SIK3, and ablation of this kinase in proliferating chondrocytes rescued perinatal lethality of PTHrP-null mice. Combined deletion of Sik2 and Sik3 in osteoblasts and osteocytes led to a dramatic increase in bone mass that closely resembled the skeletal and molecular phenotypes observed when these bone cells express a constitutively active PTH1R that causes Jansen’s metaphyseal chondrodysplasia. Finally, genetic evidence demonstrated that class IIa histone deacetylases were key PTH1R-regulated SIK substrates in both chondrocytes and osteocytes. Taken together, our findings establish that SIK inhibition is central to PTH1R action in bone development and remodeling. Furthermore, this work highlights the key role of cAMP-regulated SIKs downstream of GPCR action.
Shigeki Nishimori, Maureen J. O’Meara, Christian D. Castro, Hiroshi Noda, Murat Cetinbas, Janaina da Silva Martins, Ugur Ayturk, Daniel J. Brooks, Michael Bruce, Mizuki Nagata, Wanida Ono, Christopher J. Janton, Mary L. Bouxsein, Marc Foretz, Rebecca Berdeaux, Ruslan I. Sadreyev, Thomas J. Gardella, Harald Jüppner, Henry M. Kronenberg, Marc N. Wein
Delayed ischemic neurological deficit (DIND) is a major driver of adverse outcomes in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH), defining an unmet need for therapeutic development. Cell-free hemoglobin that is released from erythrocytes into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is suggested to cause vasoconstriction and neuronal toxicity, and correlates with the occurrence of DIND. Cell-free hemoglobin in the CSF of patients with aSAH disrupted dilatory NO signaling ex vivo in cerebral arteries, which shifted vascular tone balance from dilation to constriction. We found that selective removal of hemoglobin from patient CSF with a haptoglobin-affinity column or its sequestration in a soluble hemoglobin-haptoglobin complex was sufficient to restore physiological vascular responses. In a sheep model, administration of haptoglobin into the CSF inhibited hemoglobin-induced cerebral vasospasm and preserved vascular NO signaling. We identified 2 pathways of hemoglobin delocalization from CSF into the brain parenchyma and into the NO-sensitive compartment of small cerebral arteries. Both pathways were critical for hemoglobin toxicity and were interrupted by the large hemoglobin-haptoglobin complex that inhibited spatial requirements for hemoglobin reactions with NO in tissues. Collectively, our data show that compartmentalization of hemoglobin by haptoglobin provides a novel framework for innovation aimed at reducing hemoglobin-driven neurological damage after subarachnoid bleeding.
Michael Hugelshofer, Raphael M. Buzzi, Christian A. Schaer, Henning Richter, Kevin Akeret, Vania Anagnostakou, Leila Mahmoudi, Raphael Vaccani, Florence Vallelian, Jeremy W. Deuel, Peter W. Kronen, Zsolt Kulcsar, Luca Regli, Jin Hyen Baek, Ivan S. Pires, Andre F. Palmer, Matthias Dennler, Rok Humar, Paul W. Buehler, Patrick R. Kircher, Emanuela Keller, Dominik J. Schaer
During developmental angiogenesis, blood vessels grow and remodel to ultimately build a hierarchical vascular network. Whether and how cell death signaling molecules contribute to blood vessel formation are still not well understood. Caspase-8 (Casp-8), a key protease in the extrinsic cell death–signaling pathway, regulates cell death via both apoptosis and necroptosis. Here, we show that expression of Casp-8 in endothelial cells (ECs) is required for proper postnatal retina angiogenesis. EC-specific Casp-8–KO pups (Casp-8ECKO) showed reduced retina angiogenesis, as the loss of Casp-8 reduced EC proliferation, sprouting, and migration independently of its cell death function. Instead, the loss of Casp-8 caused hyperactivation of p38 MAPK downstream of receptor-interacting serine/threonine protein kinase 3 (RIPK3) and destabilization of vascular endothelial cadherin (VE-cadherin) at EC junctions. In a mouse model of oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR) resembling retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), loss of Casp-8 in ECs was beneficial, as pathological neovascularization was reduced in Casp-8ECKO pups. Taking these data together, we show that Casp-8 acts in a cell death–independent manner in ECs to regulate the formation of the retina vasculature and that Casp-8 in ECs is mechanistically involved in the pathophysiology of ROP.
Nathalie Tisch, Aida Freire-Valls, Rosario Yerbes, Isidora Paredes, Silvia La Porta, Xiaohong Wang, Rosa Martín-Pérez, Laura Castro, Wendy Wei-Lynn Wong, Leigh Coultas, Boris Strilic, Hermann-Josef Gröne, Thomas Hielscher, Carolin Mogler, Ralf H. Adams, Peter Heiduschka, Lena Claesson-Welsh, Massimiliano Mazzone, Abelardo López-Rivas, Thomas Schmidt, Hellmut G. Augustin, Carmen Ruiz de Almodovar
The transcription factor B cell CLL/lymphoma 11B (BCL11B) is indispensable for T lineage development of lymphoid progenitors. Here, we show that chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) expression during early phases of ex vivo generation of lymphoid progenitors suppressed BCL11B, leading to suppression of T cell–associated gene expression and acquisition of NK cell–like properties. Upon adoptive transfer into hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients, CAR-expressing lymphoid progenitors differentiated into CAR-induced killer (CARiK) cells that mediated potent antigen-directed antileukemic activity even across MHC barriers. CD28 and active immune receptor tyrosine-based activation motifs were critical for a functional CARiK phenotype. These results give important insights into differentiation of murine and human lymphoid progenitors driven by synthetic CAR transgene expression and encourage further evaluation of ex vivo–generated CARiK cells for targeted immunotherapy.
Marcel Maluski, Arnab Ghosh, Jessica Herbst, Vanessa Scholl, Rolf Baumann, Jochen Huehn, Robert Geffers, Johann Meyer, Holger Maul, Britta Eiz-Vesper, Andreas Krueger, Axel Schambach, Marcel R. M. van den Brink, Martin G. Sauer
Patients with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) have a clonal population of blood cells deficient in glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored (GPI-anchored) proteins, resulting from a mutation in the X-linked gene PIGA. Here we report on a set of patients in whom PNH results instead from biallelic mutation of PIGT on chromosome 20. These PIGT-PNH patients have clinically typical PNH, but they have in addition prominent autoinflammatory features, including recurrent attacks of aseptic meningitis. In all these patients we find a germ-line point mutation in one PIGT allele, whereas the other PIGT allele is removed by somatic deletion of a 20q region comprising maternally imprinted genes implicated in myeloproliferative syndromes. Unlike in PIGA-PNH cells, GPI is synthesized in PIGT-PNH cells and, since its attachment to proteins is blocked, free GPI is expressed on the cell surface. From studies of patients’ leukocytes and of PIGT-KO THP-1 cells we show that, through increased IL-1β secretion, activation of the lectin pathway of complement and generation of C5b-9 complexes, free GPI is the agent of autoinflammation. Eculizumab treatment abrogates not only intravascular hemolysis, but also autoinflammation. Thus, PIGT-PNH differs from PIGA-PNH both in the mechanism of clonal expansion and in clinical manifestations.
Britta Höchsmann, Yoshiko Murakami, Makiko Osato, Alexej Knaus, Michi Kawamoto, Norimitsu Inoue, Tetsuya Hirata, Shogo Murata, Markus Anliker, Thomas Eggerman, Marten Jäger, Ricarda Floettmann, Alexander Höllein, Sho Murase, Yasutaka Ueda, Jun-ichi Nishimura, Yuzuru Kanakura, Nobuo Kohara, Hubert Schrezenmeier, Peter M. Krawitz, Taroh Kinoshita
Bone is richly innervated by nerve growth factor–responsive (NGF-responsive) tropomyosin receptor kinase A–expressing (TrKa-expressing) sensory nerve fibers, which are required for osteochondral progenitor expansion during mammalian skeletal development. Aside from pain sensation, little is known regarding the role of sensory innervation in bone repair. Here, we characterized the reinnervation of tissue following experimental ulnar stress fracture and assessed the impact of loss of TrkA signaling in this process. Sequential histological data obtained in reporter mice subjected to fracture demonstrated a marked upregulation of NGF expression in periosteal stromal progenitors and fracture-associated macrophages. Sprouting and arborization of CGRP+TrkA+ sensory nerve fibers within the reactive periosteum in NGF-enriched cellular domains were evident at time points preceding periosteal vascularization, ossification, and mineralization. Temporal inhibition of TrkA catalytic activity by administration of 1NMPP1 to TrkAF592A mice significantly reduced the numbers of sensory fibers, blunted revascularization, and delayed ossification of the fracture callus. We observed similar deficiencies in nerve regrowth and fracture healing in a mouse model of peripheral neuropathy induced by paclitaxel treatment. Together, our studies demonstrate an essential role of TrkA signaling for stress fracture repair and implicate skeletal sensory nerves as an important upstream mediator of this repair process.
Zhu Li, Carolyn A. Meyers, Leslie Chang, Seungyong Lee, Zhi Li, Ryan Tomlinson, Ahmet Hoke, Thomas L. Clemens, Aaron W. James
Antagonists of the type 1 cysteinyl leukotriene receptor (CysLT1R) are widely used to treat asthma and allergic rhinitis, with variable response rates. Alveolar macrophages express UDP-specific P2Y6 receptors that can be blocked by off-target effects of CysLT1R antagonists. Sensitizing intranasal doses of an extract from the house dust mite Dermatophagoides farinae (Df) sharply increased the levels of UDP detected in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of mice. Conditional deletion of P2Y6 receptors before sensitization exacerbated eosinophilic lung inflammation and type 2 cytokine production in response to subsequent Df challenge. P2Y6 receptor signaling was necessary for dectin-2–dependent production of protective IL-12p40 and Th1 chemokines by alveolar macrophages, leading to activation of NK cells to generate IFN-γ. Administration of CysLT1R antagonists during sensitization blocked UDP-elicited potentiation of IL-12p40 production by macrophages in vitro, suppressed the Df-induced production of IL-12p40 and IFN-γ in vivo, and suppressed type 2 inflammation only in P2Y6-deficient mice. Thus, P2Y6 receptor signaling drives an innate macrophage/IL-12/NK cell/IFN-γ axis that prevents inappropriate allergic type 2 immune responses on respiratory allergen exposure and counteracts the Th2 priming effect of CysLT1R signaling at sensitization. Targeting P2Y6 signaling might prove to be a potential additional treatment strategy for allergy.
Jun Nagai, Barbara Balestrieri, Laura B. Fanning, Timothy Kyin, Haley Cirka, Junrui Lin, Marco Idzko, Andreas Zech, Edy Y. Kim, Patrick J. Brennan, Joshua A. Boyce
Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) usually display an antiinflammatory M2-like phenotype to facilitate tumor growth. However, what drives M2 polarization of TAMs and how TAMs suppress antitumor immunity within the tumor microenvironment (TME) remain largely undefined. Using several murine tumor models, we showed that hedgehog (Hh) signaling in myeloid cells is critical for TAM M2 polarization and tumor growth. We also found that tumor cells secrete sonic hedgehog (SHH), an Hh ligand, and that tumor-derived SHH drives TAM M2 polarization. Furthermore, Hh-induced functional polarization in TAMs suppresses CD8+ T cell recruitment to the TME through the inhibition of CXCL9 and CXCL10 production by TAMs. Last, we demonstrated that Krüppel-like factor 4 (Klf4) mediates Hh-dependent TAM M2 polarization and the immunosuppressive function. Collectively, these findings highlight a critical role for tumor-derived SHH in promoting TAM M2 polarization, a mechanism for TAM-mediated immunosuppression, and may provide insights into the design of new cancer immunotherapeutic strategies.
Amy J. Petty, Ang Li, Xinyi Wang, Rui Dai, Benjamin Heyman, David Hsu, Xiaopei Huang, Yiping Yang
Overexpression of myo-inositol oxygenase (MIOX), a proximal tubular enzyme, exacerbates cellular redox injury in acute kidney injury (AKI). Ferroptosis, a newly coined term associated with lipid hydroperoxidation, plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of AKI. Whether or not MIOX exacerbates tubular damage by accelerating ferroptosis in cisplatin-induced AKI remains elusive. Cisplatin-treated HK-2 cells exhibited notable cell death, which was reduced by ferroptosis inhibitors. Also, alterations in various ferroptosis metabolic sensors, including lipid hydroperoxidation, glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4) activity, NADPH and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels, and ferritinophagy, were observed. These perturbations were accentuated by MIOX overexpression, while ameliorated by MIOX knockdown. Likewise, cisplatin-treated CD1 mice exhibited tubular damage and derangement of renal physiological parameters, which were alleviated by ferrostatin-1, a ferroptosis inhibitor. To investigate the relevance of MIOX to ferroptosis, WT mice, MIOX-overexpressing transgenic (MIOX-Tg) mice, and MIOX-KO mice were subjected to cisplatin treatment. In comparison with cisplatin-treated WT mice, cisplatin-treated MIOX-Tg mice had more severe renal pathological changes and perturbations in ferroptosis metabolic sensors, which were minimal in cisplatin-treated MIOX-KO mice. In conclusion, these findings indicate that ferroptosis, an integral process in the pathogenesis of cisplatin-induced AKI, is modulated by the expression profile of MIOX.
Fei Deng, Isha Sharma, Yingbo Dai, Ming Yang, Yashpal S. Kanwar
We hypothesized that the store-operated calcium entry (SOCE) channel, Orai1, participates in the activation of Th17 cells and influences renal injury. In rats, following renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R), there was a rapid and sustained influx of Orai1+ CD4 T cells and IL-17 expression was restricted to Orai1+ cells. When kidney CD4+ cells of post–acute kidney injury (post-AKI) rats were stimulated with angiotensin II and elevated Na+ (10–7 M/170 mM) in vitro, there was an enhanced response in intracellular Ca2+ and IL-17 expression, which was blocked by SOCE inhibitors 2APB, YM58483/BTP2, or AnCoA4. In vivo, YM58483/BTP2 (1 mg/kg) attenuated IL-17+ cell activation, inflammation, and severity of AKI following either I/R or intramuscular glycerol injection. Rats treated with high-salt diet (5–9 weeks after I/R) manifested progressive disease indicated by enhanced inflammation, fibrosis, and impaired renal function. These responses were significantly attenuated by YM58483/BTP2. In peripheral blood of critically ill patients, Orai1+ cells were significantly elevated by approximately 10-fold and Th17 cells were elevated by approximately 4-fold in AKI versus non-AKI patients. Further, in vitro stimulation of CD4+ cells from AKI patients increased IL-17, which was blocked by SOCE inhibitors. These data suggest that Orai1 SOCE is a potential therapeutic target in AKI and CKD progression.
Purvi Mehrotra, Michael Sturek, Javier A. Neyra, David P. Basile
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